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Bolt-Action Rifles | Bolt-Action Centerfire Rifles, Bolt-Action Rifles | Academy

Thank You! Prefer Not To Say. Shinola Collections I'm Interested In. Select Your Country. Please note that engraved items are final sale, and cannot be returned or exchanged. Orders with engraving are no longer guaranteed by Father's Day. The selected option is out of stock. Item: sdt The ability of the bolt between lugs and chamber to flex also keeps the shooter safer in case of catastrophic chamber over-pressure. The disadvantage of the rearward located bolt lugs is that a larger part of the receiver, between chamber and lugs, must be made stronger and heavier to resist stretching forces.

Also, the bolt ahead of the lugs may flex on firing which, although a safety advantage, may eventually lead to increased head space. Repeated firing over time can lead to receiver "stretch" and excessive headspace, which if perceived as a problem can be remedied by changing the removable bolt head to a larger sized one the Lee—Enfield bolt manufacture involved a mass production method where at final assembly the bolt body was fitted with one of three standard size bolt heads for correct headspace. Rifle Factory Ishapore of India manufactures a hunting and sporting rifle chambered in. The Mosin—Nagant design has a separate bolthead which rotates with the bolt and the bearing lugs, in contrast to the Mauser system where the bolthead is a non-removable part of the bolt.

The Mosin—Nagant is also unlike the Lee—Enfield system where the bolthead remains stationary and the bolt body itself rotates. The Mosin—Nagant bolt is a somewhat complicated affair, but is extremely rugged and durable; it, like the Mauser, uses a "cock on open" system.


Although this bolt system has been rarely used in commercial sporting rifles the Vostok brand target rifles being the most recognized and never outside of Russia, large numbers of military surplus Mosin—Nagant rifles have been sporterized for use as hunting rifles in the years since WWII. The Vetterli rifle was the first bolt action repeating rifle introduced by an army.

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It was used by the Swiss army from to circa Modified Vetterlis were also used by the Italian Army. It is unusual among bolt-action rifles in that is loaded through a gate on right side of the receiver, and thus can be reloaded without opening the bolt. The Norwegian and Danish versions of the Krag have two locking lugs, while the American version has only one.

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In all versions, the bolt handle itself serves as an emergency locking lug. The Krag's major disadvantage compared to other bolt-action designs is that it is usually loaded by hand, one round at a time, although a box-like device was made that could drop five rounds into the magazine, all at once via a stripper or en-bloc clip.

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This made it slower to reload than other designs which used stripper or en-bloc clips. Another historically important bolt-action system was the Gras system, used on the French Mle Gras rifle , Mle Lebel rifle which was first to introduce ammunition loaded with nitrocellulose-based smokeless powder , and the Berthier series of rifles.

See List of straight pull rifles Straight pull actions differ from a conventional bolt action mechanisms in that the manipulation required from the user in order to chamber and extract a cartridge predominantly consists of a linear motion only, as opposed to a traditional turn-bolt action where the user has to manually rotate the bolt for chambering and primary extraction. Therefore, in a straight-pull action, the bolt can be cycled back and forward without rotating the handle, hence producing a reduced range of motion by the shooter from four movements to two, with the goal of increasing the rifle's rate of fire.

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In contrast, operation of the Mauser-style turn-bolt action [5] [6] requires the bolt handle to be rotated upward, drawn rearward, pushed forward, and finally rotated downward back into lock to complete the loading cycle. The straight pull bolt movements are also all inline with the gun's barrelled action, unlike the turn-bolt designs whose bolt rotations can exert unwanted torques that might throw the gun off aim. Straight pull rifles are often perceived to have an advantage in that they are faster and easier to operate for the user, [ citation needed ] however, they are often more complex than traditional bolt action designs, and often have poor primary extraction [7] lacking the mechanical advantage of a turn bolt.

All three are straight-pull bolt actions, but are entirely unrelated designs.

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The Ross and Schmidt—Rubin rifles load via stripper clips , albeit of an unusual paperboard and steel design in the Schmidt—Rubin rifle, while the Mannlicher M uses en-bloc clips. The Schmidt—Rubin series, which culminated in the K31, are also known for being among the most accurate military rifles ever made. Yet another variant of the straight-pull bolt action, of which the M Lee Navy is an example, is a camming action in which pulling the bolt handle causes the bolt to rock, freeing a stud from the receiver and unlocking the bolt.

As of the Rifle Shooter magazine [9] listed its successor Blaser R8 as one of the three most popular straight pull rifles together with Merkel Helix [10] and Browning Maral. Most straight pull rifles have a firing mechanism without a hammer , [ citation needed ] but there are some hammer fired models like for instance the Merkel Helix.

Firearms using a hammer usually have a comparably longer lock time than hammer-less mechanisms. In the sport of biathlon , because shooting speed is an important performance factor and semi-automatic guns are illegal for race use, straight-pull actions are quite common, and are used almost exclusively on the Biathlon World Cup. The first company to make the straight-pull action for. With the new design came a new dry-fire method; instead of the bolt being turned up slightly, the action is locked back to catch the firing pin.

Another distinct type of popular straight-pull design used in biathlon events is the "lateral toggle"-type straight-pull action, which used a hinged linkage to cycle the bolt. The advantage of such action design is that the same bolt movements can be achieved with significantly reduced range of movement by the user's hand. The two earliest companies who have made the lateral toggle are Finnbiathlon, as well as Izhmash.

Finn was the first to make this type of action, however, due to the large swing of the arm as well as the stiffness of the bolt, these rifles fell out of favour and have been discontinued. Izhmash improved on the lateral swing with their Biathlon and series rifles, which have some use on world cups, but are largely thought of as inaccurate as well as having the inconvenience of having to remove the shooter's hand from the grip. The Iowa -based company Volquartsen Custom, which is well known for making high-end custom firearms based on Ruger models, has since taken over the production of the PWS T3 Summit and re-introduced it as the Volquartsen Summit rifle.

Typically, the bolt consists of a tube of metal inside of which the firing mechanism is housed, and which has at the front or rear of the tube several metal knobs, or "lugs", which serve to lock the bolt in place. The operation can be done via a rotating bolt , a lever, cam-action, locking piece, or a number of systems. Straight-pull designs have seen a great deal of use, though manual turn-bolt designs are what is most commonly thought of in reference to a bolt-action design due to the type ubiquity.

As a result, the bolt-action term is often reserved for more modern types of rotating bolt-designs when talking about a specific weapon's type of action. However, both straight-pull and rotating bolt rifles are types of bolt-action rifles. Lever-action and pump-action weapons must still operate the bolt, but they are usually grouped separately from bolt-actions that are operated by a handle directly attached to a rotating bolt. Early bolt-action designs, such as the Dreyse needle gun and the Mauser Model , locked by dropping the bolt handle or bolt guide rib into a notch in the receiver , this method is still used in.

The most common locking method is a rotating bolt with two lugs on the bolt head, which was used by the Lebel Model rifle , Model Commission Rifle , Mauser M 98 , Mosin—Nagant and most bolt-action rifles. The Lee—Enfield has a lug and guide rib, which lock on the rear end of the bolt into the receiver. Most bolt-action firearms are fed by an internal magazine loaded by hand, by en bloc , or stripper clips , though a number of designs have had a detachable magazine or independent magazine, or even no magazine at all, thus requiring that each round be independently loaded.

Generally, the magazine capacity is limited to between two and ten rounds, as it can permit the magazine to be flush with the bottom of the rifle, reduce the weight, or prevent mud and dirt from entering. A number of bolt-actions have a tube magazine , such as along the length of the barrel. In weapons other than large rifles, such as pistols and cannons , there were some manually operated breech loading weapons. However, the Dreyse Needle fire rifle was the first breech-loader to use a rotating bolt design. Johann Nicholas von Dreyse 's rifle of was accepted into service by Prussia in , which was in turn developed into the Prussian Model The design was a single-shot breech loader, and had the now familiar arm sticking out from the side of the bolt, to turn and open the chamber.

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The entire reloading sequence was a more complex procedure than later designs, however, as the firing pin had to be independently primed and activated, and the lever was only used to move the bolt. Bolt-action firearms can theoretically achieve higher muzzle velocity and therefore have more accuracy than semi-automatic rifles because of the way the barrel is sealed. In a semi-automatic rifle, some of the energy from the charge is directed towards ejecting the spent shell and loading a new cartridge into the chamber.


In a bolt action, the shooter performs this action by manually operating the bolt, allowing the chamber to be better sealed during firing, so that much more of the energy from the expanding gas can be directed forward. However, numerous other factors related to design and ammunition affect reliability and accuracy, and well designed modern semi-automatic rifles can be exceptionally accurate. Because of the combination of relatively light weight, reliability, high potential accuracy and lower cost, the bolt action is still the design of choice for many hunters, target shooters and marksmen.

The bolt action's locking lugs are normally at the front of the breech some designs have additional "safety lugs" at the rear , and this increases potential accuracy relative to a design which locks the breech at the rear, such as a lever action. Also, a bolt action's only moving parts when firing are the pin and spring. Because the spent cartridge is removed by manual action rather than automatically ejected, it can help a marksman remain hidden.

Because the cartridge is not visibly flung into the air and onto the ground, a bolt action may be less likely to reveal a shooter's position. Also, the cartridge can be removed when most prudent, allowing the shooter to remain still until reloading is tactically feasible.